Piyeer Kurii

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Piyeer Kurii

Piyeer Kurii (Caamsaa 15 1859 - Ebla 19 1906) fiizisistii lammii Firaansi yoo ta'u qorannoo kiristaalaa (crystallography), maagineetii, pi'eezzoo'elektirisiitii fi raadiyoo'aktiiviitii irratti geggeesseen beekkama. Piyeer Kuriin bara 1903tti Badhaasa Noobelii kan Fiiziksii haadhaa manaasaa Meerii Kurii, fi Henri Becquerel waajjin "yaadannoo tajaajila olaana isaan qorannoo wal faana raadiyeeshinii Pirofeesar Henri Becquerel argate irratti godhaniin kennaniif beekkamtii kennuuf" argate.

Jireenya Ijoollummaasaa[edit | Lakkaddaa gulaali]

Piyeer kurii Paarisitti Caamsaa 15 1859 dhalate; abbaan Piyeer Eugene kurii (28 Hagayya 1827 – 25 Amajjii 1910) yoo ta'u haati isaa ammoo Sophie-Claire Depouilly Kurii (15 January 1832 – 27 September 1897) ti. Abbaansaa Piyeer mana keessatti isa barsiise, Piyeer yeroo umuriinsaa mana kudhanii keessaa seenu dandeettii herregaa fi ji'oomeetirii guddaa agarsiise. Umurii 16tti, digirii herregaa fudhate. Yeroo umuriinsaa 18, Piyeer barnoota digirii olaanaan qixxaatu fixe, garuu sababa mallaqa dhabuutin battalumaan doktireetii itti hin fufne. Sana dhiisee barsiisaa laabiraatorii ta'ee hojjachuu jalqabe.

Bara 1880, Piyeerii fi obboleessi isaa angafni Jaak (1856 - 1941) yeroo kiristaalli cafaqamu garaagarummaan elektirikii (electric potential) akka uummau argatani; kunis pi'eezzo'elektirisiitii jedhama. Hojii kanarratti itti fayyadamuuf, Piezoelectric Quartz Electrometer kalaqan. Yeroo gabaabaa booda, amala faallaa kanaa ta'ee agarsiisan: kiristaalonni yeroo fiildii elektiriikitti saaxilaman bocni isaanii akka jijjiiramu. Yeroo ammaa elektirooniik sarkiyuutin dijitaalaa hundi kanarratti kan hundaa'an yoo ta'u kunis kiristaal osileeterii (crystal oscillators) dha.

Piyeer Kurii Meerii Kurii (duraan Maariyaa Sklodowska jedhamti) karaa hiriyaasaa tokkootin wal bare. Wanti Piyeer Meerii akka jaalatu godhe tokko ishiin akka dubartoota kaanii miti - garaa guutuun saayinsii jaalatti. Yeroo inni fuudhaaf ishii gaafatu, ishiinis oduma isa jaalattuuyyuu, hin didde. Dhumarratti Adooleessa 26 1895tti gaaffii gaa'ilaa kana fudhatee.

Qorannoo Isaa[edit | Lakkaddaa gulaali]

Qorannoo dokitireetiisaa kan maagineetizimii irratti godhe dura, Piyeer meeshaa ittiin koofishentii maagineetii ittiin safaru kalaqe. Meeshaa kana (jijjiirraa muraasa gochuun) namoonni waa'ee maagineetizimii irratti hojjatan baayyen ergasii itti fayyadamaniiru. Piyeer dokitireetii isaatif feerroomaagineetizimii, paaraamaagineetizimii fi daayaamaagineetizimii qorate, kanaanis dhiibbaa tempireecharri paaraamaagineetizimii irratti qabu kan amma seera Kurii (Curie's law) jedhamu argate. Seranaa (constant) wantootaa kan seera kiyuurii keessa jiru seranaa Piyeerii jedhama. Wantoonnii feerroomaagineetik ta'an tempireechara jijiirramaa murteessa, kan yoo tempireecharri isaa ol ta'e amala feerroomaagineetik isaanii dhaban argate. Kunis qabxii Kuurii jedhama.

Piyeer kan amma Piriinsipillii Dissimeetirii Kurii jedhamu baase: bu'aan fiizikaalaa (physical effect) dissimeetirii waan ka'umsa ta'eef sana keessa hin jirre hin qabaatu. Fakkenyaaf, wal makaan cirrachaa kan zeeroo giraaviitii keessa jiruu dissimeetirii (ayisotirooppiikii) hin qabu. Fiildii giraaviitii yoo itti godhame, dissimeetiriin ni uummama, kunis sababa kallattii fiildii girraviitii sanaatiif kan dhufe. Sana booda tokko tokkeen cirrachaa sun rukkina kan yabbina wajjin dabalaa deemu wajjin of-fooya (self-sort). Qindoomni haaraan kun garuu, kan ijji cirrachaa kallattiin of qindeesse kun, dissimeetirii fiildii giraaviitii kan fooyama uumuf saba ta'e sana agarsiisa.

Piyeer haadha manaasaa Meerii Kurii wajjin hojjachuun polooniyemii fi reediyeemi argatan. Jecha 'raadiyoo'aktiviitii' jedhu yeroo jalqabaatiif kan fayyadame isaan yoo ta'u qorannoo raadiyoo'aktiviitii irratti geggeessuun namoota jalqabaa turan. Hojiin isaanii, qorannoo doktireetii kan Meerii isa beekkamaa dabalatee, elektiroomeetirii pi'eezzoo'elektirikii kan Piyeerii fi obboleessi isaa Jaak wajjin kalaqanitti fayyadamuun hojjatame.

Yeroo jalqabaaf anniisaa niwuukilaaraa Piyeerii fi barataasaatu argate; kanas hoo'a odoo addaan hin citin reediyeemii keessa yaa'u adda baasun argatan. Piyeer raadiyeeshinii wantoonni raadiyoo'aktiivii ta'an maddisiisan qorate, maagineetiik fiilditti fayyadamudhaan raadiyeeshiniin tokko tokko chaarjii poozatiivii kan qabu, kaan ammoo nageetiivii kan qabu, fi kaan hinbabsaawoo ta'uu hubate. Kunis raadiyeeshinii aalfaa, beettaa, fi gaamaa jedhamu.

Kuriin safartuun raadiyoo'aktiiviitii (sekendii tokkotti tortora 3.7 × 1010 ykn 37 gigabecquerels) yoo ta'u jalqaba kabaja Kuriif jecha bara 1910tti Kongiresii Raadiyooloojiitiin moggaafame, kunis erga Kuriin du'ee booda ture. Boodarra garuu, maqaan kun kabaja Marii, Piyeer, moo kan lamaanuti jedhu mormii kaase. 

Gara dhuma jaarra 19ffaa keessa, Piyeer Kuriin icitii maagineetizimii (ordinary magnetism) qorachaa ture; kana bukkeetti eksipermentii hafuura kan saayintistoonni Yuurooppi kan akka Charles Richet and Camille Flammarion godhan dhaga'e. Piyeer jalqaba qorannoo tooftawaan waa'ee hafuuraa irratti godhamu gaaffiwaan maagineetizimii kan deebi hin argatin baruuf akka isa gargaaru tilmaame. KAadhimasaa Mariidhaa yeroo barreessu "Waa'een hafuura kun baayyee akka na hawwate sitti dhoksuu hin barbaadu. Isa keessa gaaffiin wa'ee fiiziksii jira" (Hurwic 1995, p. 68). Yaadannoon Piyeer Kurii kan yeroo sanaa kitaabaa wa'ee hafuuraa baayyee akka dubbise agarsiisa (Hurwic 1995, p. 68)  

Waa'ee seances kan Eusapia Palladino, Piyeer Kuriin fizisist Joorji Goyiif xalayaa Adoolessa 4 1905 barreessefin akkana jedhe: 

About some séances with Eusapia Palladino, Pierre Curie wrote to physicist Georges Gouy in a letter dated 24 July 1905 (Hurwic 1995, p. 248):

"We had at the Psychology Society a few séances with the medium Eusapia Paladino. It was very interesting, and truly those phenomena that we have witnessed seemed to us to not be some magical tricks — a table lifted four feet above the floor, movements of objects, feelings of hands that pinched you or caressed you, apparitions of light. All this in a room arranged by us, with a small number of spectators all well known and without the presence of a possible accomplice. Cheating would only be possible if the medium had extraordinary abilities as a magician. But how to explain the different phenomena when we are holding her hands and legs, and the lighting of the room is sufficient to see everything going on?"

Piyeer gara Seances daawwachuuf qofa hin deemne, kaayyoon isaas hafuura wayii wajjin dudubbachuuf hin turre. Piyeer seances akka eksipermentii saayinsiitti ilaale, ulaagaa adda addaas too'achuu yaale, dhumarratti yaadanoo ballaa waan achirratti argees qabate (Hurwic 1995, p. 247).   

Jireenya Dhuunfaa[edit | Lakkaddaa gulaali]

Intalli Piyeeri fi Marii Kurii Aayiriin Joliot-Kurii fi abbaan manaa ishii Fireediriik Joliot-Kuriis fiizisistii wa'ee raadiyoo'aktiiviitii qoratan turan. Isaanis Badhaasa Noobelii kan Fiiziksii qorannoo isaanii kanaaf argataniiru. 

Intalli isaanii kan biraa, Iivi ammoo, seenaa haadha ishii barreessite.

Kan Piyeer Kuriin akaakayyuu ta'uuf intalli intalasaanii Hélène Langevin-Joliot, Yuunivarsiitii Paarisitti pirofeesarii fiiziksii niwuukilaaraa ti. Kan Piyeer Kuriin akaakayyuu ta'uuf ilmi intalasaanii Piyeer Joliot, kan akaakayyuusaa Piyeeritti moggaafame, baayookemistii beekkamaa dha. 

Piyeer Kuriin balaa karaarraa kan Paaris keessatti isarra ga'een Ebla 19 1906 du'e. Karaa tiraafikiin itti baayyatu Rue Dauphine bokkaa keessa bakka Quai de Conti jedhamutti odoo qaxxaamuraa jiruu, Piyeer mucucaatee konkolaata fardaan harkifamu (cart) jalatti kufe. Lukti konkolaataa kanaa mataasarra bahee buqqee mataasaa waan cabseef battalumatti du'e. 

Ebla 1995, Piyeeri fi Marii Kurii Paaris keessatti iddoo awwalcha namoota kabajamoof addatti qophaa'e keessati awwaalaman. 

Badhaasa[edit | Lakkaddaa gulaali]

  1. Badhaasa Noobelii kan Fiiziksii (1903)
  2. Madaaliyaa Davy (1903)
  3. Madaaliyaa Matteucci (1904)
  4. Madaaliyaa Elliott Cresson (1909) kan erga inni du'e booda ayyaana badhaasa Marii Kurii irratti kennameef

Wabii[edit | Lakkaddaa gulaali]

  1. Awarded jointly to Pierre Curie and wife Marie Curie
  2. Manbachi, A. and Cobbold R.S.C. (November 2011). "Development and Application of Piezoelectric Materials for Ultrasound Generation and Detection"Ultrasound 19 (4): 187–196.doi:10.1258/ult.2011.011027.
  3. Paul W. Frame. "How the Curie Came to Be". Retrieved 30 April 2008.
  4. Anna Hurwic, Pierre Curie, Translated by Lilananda Dasa and Joseph Cudnik. (Paris: Flammarion, 1995) p. 65
  5. "Prof. Curie killed in a Paris street" (PDF)The New York Times, 20 April 1906

Liinkii Alaa[edit | Lakkaddaa gulaali]

  1. NOBELPRIZE.ORG: Seenaa Piyeerii fi Marii Kurii
  2. Badhaasa Noobelii Piyeer Kurii 
  3. Official Nobel biography
  4. Biography American Institute of Physics
  5. Annotated bibliography for Pierre Curie from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
  6. Curie's publication in French Academy of Sciences papers
  7. Some places and memories related to Pierre Curie
  8. Pierre Curie at Find a Grave